UNWERSJi^ V LiBEARIES
'Markham, J. H.
iThe preparation of salicylic
1 acid from phenol
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The Preparation of Salicylic Acid
J. H. MARKHAM AND B. W. LEWIS
PRESIDENT AND FACULTY
ARMOUR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
FOR THE DEGREE OF
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE
MAY 29, 1919
I'lnA-^scr of C
^(.r i.f CtKiiiicnl KiiK'iitrcrinsr
^H\C^GO. ^^ " Dran of Cultunil Sl.iilies
I H D S X
OCGUEHENCE MD LETHODS OF PREPAHATIOil 3
KOLBE'S PROCESS 7
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 10
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 14
USES 0? SALICYLIC ACID 20
OUR I.IETHOD OP PREPARATIOII 25
EXPSRIMEITTAL RUIIS 30
THE CHEMISTRY OE TEE SCHMIDT METHOD 36
This work v;as done under the general direction
and supervision of Professor Harry McCormack,
for which respectful acknowledgment is hereby
Preparation of Salicylic acid from
phenol. Using phenol as a starting substance
to prepare the acid, to study the process and
to purify the product. It was originally in-
tended to start v.ith tenzol and go thru the
synthesis of sodium phenate, tut since the
price of phenol has reached such a lov; price,
and since the synthesis of phenol is now more
or less standard, the process starts with phenol
and caustic soda.
OCCUnRElJCE AllD LIETHODE OF PP.EPAHATIOIT .
Ortho-hyuroxy-carboxylic acid, or
ortho-hydroxy-'bensoic acid or ortho-hydroxy-
c art oxy-b eri z ene .
7 6 3
C H . OH.COOH (1-2)
The acid v.as first discovered by
H. Piria in 16S9, by fusing salicylic alde-
hyde v;ith potassium hydroxide. Calhours
proved in 1843 that oil of v.intergreen is
mainly methyl salicylate. In 1653 A. Ho f nan
converted anthranilic acid into salicylic
acid by means of nitrous acid. Finally Ilolbe
and lautemann prepared it synthetically from
phenol, sodium and carbon dioxide in 1673.
Natural salicylic acid is
found in many plants, usually in the form of
methyl salicylate or oil of v.inter^reen
6 4 3
The acid may be obtained from the
following plants: Gaulterla fragrantissima,
Gaulteria procumbeus, Gaulteria punctata,
Gaulterla leukocarpa, Betula lenta, Llonotropa
hypopitis, Spiraea ulmaria, Gloria superba and
from many other plants. The acid is also found
in very small quantities in some grapes, strav,-
berries, cherries and in fact in most fruits.
Salicylic acid may be prepared by one
of the following methods:
1. 3y oxidation of, or by fusion vfith
potassium hydroxide, or by electrolysis of one
of the following substances; salicin, salicyc
aldehyde, and saligenin.
2. 2y fusing potassium hydroxide with
one of the following substances; benzoic acid.
indigo, coumarin, ortho-chlor-benzoic acid, ortho-
toluene Bulphonio acid , ortho-cresol-sulphonic
acid, ethyl-cresol-sulphonic acid.
3. By heating with water ortho-diazo-
4. By dry distillation of calciutn salt of
anie acid or meta-oxybenzoic acid.
5. 3y reaction of potassium permanganate
on the potassium salt of o-cresolsulphonic acid.
.6. By heating phenol with carbon tet-
rachloride and alco::olic potash; p-oxybenzoic
acid is here also obtained.
C H OH+CCl + 6 KOE -* C H .OZ.GOOX * ZOL *■
6 5 4 6 4
7. By oxidation of toluene ortho-phos-
phonic acid with alkaline potassium permanganate.
8. By distillation of sodium phenyl car-
bonate in a current of carton dioxide with sodium
9. By action of nitrous acid on anthranilic
10. By electrolysis of a solution of ben-
zoic acid ii) acetic acid.
11. By exposing a solution of benzoic acid
to the sunlight in the presence of a ferric salt.
1£, By passing dry carbon dioxide into a
hot mixture of phenol and sodium.
(Kolbe and lautemann)
This method has teen used for the manu-
facture of salicylic acid on a large scale.
Equivalent quantities of pure phenol
and a concentrated solution of sodium hydroxide
are thoroughly mixed and evaporated to dryness in
iron vessels with constant stirring. When the
mass is dry it is pulverized, placed in a metal
retort and heated to 100°C while a current of
heated dry carton dioxide is passed in. The mass
is kept well stirred and the temperature is slow-
ly raised to 180°G. This operation takes several
hours. After the retort has ceen heated for some
time the phenol begins to distill over. V/hen the
evolution of phenol ceases, the temperature is
raised to 200°C and the operation stopped. When
the mass has cooled, it is dissolved in v.ater and
the resinous substances precipitated with a miner-
al acid, a further addition of acid precipitates
salicylic acid, which is then purified.
This process may be regarded as taking
place In four stages:
1. Phenol and sodium hydroxide form
C-HpOH ^ ITaOH ^ C-H^ONa *■ H^O
6 5 6 5 E
E. Carton dioxide when added to the
sodium phenate forms sodium phenyl cartonate:-
C^H^OHa * CO^ = C^H^.OCO^.lTa
6 5 E 6 5 E
This stage is completed v.hen the mass is heat-
ed to about 110°G for one hour.
3. The sodium phenylcartonate is trans-
formed into sodium salicylate:-
C^H^.OCO^.lIa = C^H,.0H.C001Ia
6 5 £ 6 4
The COg goes into the Ortho-position tetv.-een
the hydrogen atom and the neucleus, producing a
4. In the last stage the salt acts with
some unchanged sodium phenate and sets free the
TDhenol in the disodium salt
C H .OH.COOIIa-C H^.OlIa = C H .Ol^Ta.COOlIa * G H^OH
64 65 64 65
This change takes place during the last stage of
physicjVI properties .
Salicylic acid crystallizes irotn ^vater
in long white needles, having a sweetish astrin-
gent taste. From alcohol salicylic acid crystal-
lizes in large colorless monoclinic prisms.
The acid, has a specific gravity of
1.48£ - 1.465 at 4^0; melting point 158° - 159°3.
Pure salicylic acid dried in vacuum over sulphuric
acid gives a melting point of 158, 5°C. Small
amounts of p-hydroxybenzoic acid lower the melt-
ing point. ".Vhen slov/ly heated to 200°G is sub-
limes, and on cooling deposits in long fine
needles; when rapidly heated to 200°C it vala-
tilizes and the vapors undergo a partial dis-
sociation into phenol and carton dioxide, accord-
ing to the formula:
? a^ k : 254.9
7/here P^pressure in cm. of mercury,
a=rdegree of dissociation. This is an irreversible
Heat of comTDustion of salicylic acid
is 5162 cal. per gram or 754990 cal. per mole-
cule. Heat of formation from phenol 5520 cal.;
latent heat of futic/. - 6550 cal.; heat of neu-
tralisation of a solution of the acid with l/E
molecule of sodium hydroxide 12910, and v.-ith
another half molecule .810 cal.
Salicylic acid is slightly soluble in
cold vvater or petroleuoi ether, hut (luite soluble
in hot water.
The acid is very soluble in chloroform,
alcohol, ether, aceton and ethyl acetate.
100 parts of ether dissolve at 15° 50.47 of acid
absolute alcohol dissolve 49.65 of acid
" aceton "
" benzene "
" glycerin "
" petroleum ether "
The solubility of salicylic acid is con-
siderably increased in the presence of so;:ie salts:
One part of salicylic acid in v;ater in the presence
1 part of potassium nitrate dissolves in 50 parts
1.5 " " ammonium citrate " " 60 "
E " " sodium sulphite " " 50 "
E " " sodium phosphate " " 50 "
2^5 »» " i» w " "12.5 "
Chloroform or ether remove it from
Salicylic acid can "be distilled in
The para-acid and traces of the meta-
acid usually accompany the ortno-acid if extreme
care is not ohserved in preparation.
Sol. in water
The ortho-acid is the only one of im-
Salicylic acid is both an acid and a
phenol. It forms three sets of salts; acid,
"basic and neutral, as well as ethers.
'.Vhen heated to 200° G it decomposes
into phenol and carbon dioxide
CgK^.OH.COOH ■= GgHg.OH * CO^
Heated in a closed vessel with water
it decomposes into phenol and carbon dioxide at
2E0°-230°; a similar decomposition takes place
when treated with con. hydrochloric or hydrobromic
acid, or with dil. sulphuric at 140°-1500 , or with
con. phosphoric at 120°.
Phosphorus trichloride gives qjI^ClPOg,
which is decomposed by water into salicylic acid
and phosphoric acid. When treated with phosphorous
pentachloride and the products distilled, ortho-
chlorbenzoylchloride is obtained. Phosphorous
pentabromide yields raonobrom-salicylic acid, and
this on heating with alcohol or phenol gives the
esters of salicj^lic acid. Phosphorous oxychloride
gives on heating salicylic anhydride.
Salicylic acid or its salts give a deep
violet coloration in a neutral solution v/ith fer-
ric salts. This reaction is used for qualitative
as well as quantitative determinations of sali-
cylic acid. 2his test is sensitive to about
1:550,000. Hov/ever phenol or salicylic aldehyde
give the same test. The color is not removed
hy acetic acid. This test fails, if for one part
of salicylic acid there is present 365 parts of
sodium nitrate or 36 parts of sodium chloride.
Dry hot ammonia breaks up salicylic
acid into phenol and carbon dioxide.
On oxidation with potassium bichromate
in sulphuric acid carbon dioxide and v.ater are
Potassium chlorate and hydrochloric
acid oxidize it to chloranil.
Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to
formic acid and carbon dioxide.
On oxidation witli potassium persul-
phate in an alkaline solution and subsequent
colling with an acid hydroquinone carboxylic
acid is obtained.
Chlorine forms mono- and di- substitu-
Dil. nitric acid forms nitro-salicylic
acid, while con, nitric acid forms picric acid.
Sodium amalgam in the presence of
boric acid produces salicylic aldehyde.
On heating v/ith resorcin it gives tri-
Sodium and amyl alcohol reduce it
chiefly to pimelic acid.
Concentrated sulphuric acid gives mono-
By heating v.ith concentrated sulphuric
acid and potassium ferrocaynide phthallc acid is
obtained. xhe same product is obtained when
salicylic acid is heated vvith oxalic acid and
Y/hen salicylic acid is heated with
"butyl alcohol and zinc chloride a homologue
01 the acid is obtained, which on distillation
goes into tutyl phenol.
It cotahines v^ith diazo-hodies to form
nitrous acid passed into an etherial
solution of salicylic acid gives nitro- and
At 210° aiiiline gives phenol and
Gyanamide and alcohol at 100° form
urea and ortho-oxybenzoic ether.
Phenol and stannic chloride at 120°
V.'ith camphor it forms a compound
C H 0„2G, H 0, which melts at 50°.
7 6 3 10^5 •
On heating with soda lime phenol and
carton dioxide are formed
C^H, (OH) GO. OH ♦ Geo = C,H_OH - GaCO_
6 4 o 5 o
Potassium persulphate added to a
solution of salicylic acid and potassium hy-
droxide forms a crystalline compound
C H (CO K)OSO K
A solution of salicylic acid and borax
in water deposit crystals of a composition
4 10 7
Chloral forms with it at 140^^
^ 4 cue 5
In dilute aqueous solutions "bromine
water gives a x>recipitate of C;.Hr;Br.O,
« -^ -^ Oct
Iodine and potash give a red pov.der GgH^KODCOgZ.
It forms compounds with casein,
fihrim and albuminoid, containing about 14;j of
the acid and having a foraiula — *^7E^11 ^^'18^^82
2C H . It melts at 40°, and is soluble in
7 6 S
water to an extent of ,0051 parts in 100 parts
■".'.Tien taken Internally it is excreted
as salicyluric acid or salicyl-glycocoll —
USES 0? SAIICYLIC ACID.
Salicylic acid is largely used in the
preparation of pharmaceuticals. The acid is
also of importance in the manufacture of syn-
thetic chemicals, such as dye stuffs. Its chief
pharmaceutical uses are as an antirheumatic and
as an antiseptic. Llany states and countries
forhid its use as a food .preservative in which
field it formally found one of its largest uses.
The acid finds extensive use in the
production of salicylates. V/hen ethyl alcohol
and sulfuric or hydrochloric acid reacts with
the salicylic acid, ethyl salicylate results.
Llethyl salicylate, oil of wintergreen may be pre-
pared from methyl alcohol and the acids in the
same manner. Llethyl salicylate is extensively
prescribed for external uses. Allyl salicylate
which is prepared in the manner as described
above, is used both medicinally and as a perfume.
Phenyl salicylate, Salol , another derivative of
the acid is a very important pharmaceutical; but
because of its cost, other salicylates are sub-
stituted. V/hen phosphorous oxychloride is
allowed to react with the acid phenyl sali-
cylate is thus formed. Acetyl salicylic acid,
"Aspirin", is prepared from salicylic acid and
acetyl chloride. "Aspirin finds extensive use
in the treatment of rheumatic conditions. All
of the Salicylic preparations taken internally,
are used for T;he henefit of the salicylic acid
v/hich is liberated in the decomposition of the
compound. Quinine salicylate is one of the
few compounds, prepared directly from the sodium
Among the most important salicylic
salts vi'hich are used in the preparation of anti-
rheumatic compounds are: tolypyrinesalicylate ,
salicylic-sulfonic acid, salicylamide, salicyl-a-
methyl -phenyl -hydrazone and methl-acetyl-salicylate.
It is interesting to note that in the production
of the raethyl-acetyl-salicylate, anhydous zinc
chloride is said to act as a catalytic agent.
The next important use of salicyio acid
is in the synthesis of many important organic
The first of these "bodies to receive
consideration is Saligenin.
This "body is prepared from salicylic
acid, thru the amide, and the reduction of the
latter with sodium amalgam in acid solutiOii.
Trichlor-a-a-glyceric acid is pre-
pared by the action of potassium chlorate and
hydrochloric acid upon salicylic acid. V/hen
salicylic acid is iodised by various methods,
among our products are iouosalicylic acid, vhich
on rapid heat-inr gives iodophenol, from which
catechol can be obtained.
^^uinol, hydroq^uii'Oiie, paradihydroxy-
benzene, 1-4 phendiol may be synthesized from
First the salicylic acid is iodised
or 'brominated so a.s to form 5 iodo- or 5 crom-
salicylic acid which on fusion v/ith potash
gives 2:5 dihydroxy "ceni'-oic acid. This "body on
dry distillation yields quinol. This same tody
may he prepared ty first nitrating the salicylic
acid into the 5-nitro acid and then to the 5-
amino salicylic acid, thence converting to the E-5
dihydroxy "benzoic acid hy the diazo method.
llote: The 5-amino-salicylic acid is best pre-
pared by the redaction of benzeneazoealicylic
acid. 5-lTitrosalicylic acid on heating with lime
gives p- nitrophenol, -..hich can be reduced to p-
amidophenol . and treated as above.
Salicylic acid yields gentisic acid by
direct oxidation with potassium persulphate in
Anisic alde?iyde: p-methoxyben::oic alde-
This liOdy is found in the volatile oil
from the wood and the bark of the Chione glabra.
It cari ce prepared from salicylic acid by first
converting to the aldehyde then thru S-methoxy-
xhis body exists in euarthic acid or
Indian Yellov.-. It is found in the free state
In coloring matter resulting from decomposition.
Upon nitration, salicylic acid yields 5-nitro
and upon reduction forms 5-arainosalicylic acid.
The amino- acid gives gentisic acid by the diaso
There are numerous other bodies that
are prepared synthetically by means of the sali-
cylic acid and its salts.
OUR Iffi'xHOD OP PREPAHATIOH. (4th Ruii)
The materials used were pure sodium
hydroxide and crystalline phenol. 120 grans
of sodium hydroxide are dissolved in an equal
weight of v.ater in a porcelain dish and cooled.
This is slowly added to 260 grams of phenol in
a shallow enameled pan, about 14xGxl". The
mixture is well stirred up and kept cool. This
gives a mixture v/hich is only slightly colored.
It is now placed in the vacuum drying chest to
ce evaporated to dryness. A vacuum of atout 2£"
is maintained and the temperature is kept down
to 50°-6C 2. The temperature must be just high
enough so that the mass will barely boil. The
temperature must ce kept low in ordei- to avoid
charring. This is a very essential step in the
The mass will gradually begin to
thicken and in about three hours it will be
completely solid. It is now removed from the
drying chest and quickly powdered in an iron
mortar to a fine powder. The fine material is
nov/ placed back in the drying chest, tut the
steam is turned off, and it is dried for about
half an hour.
The pov/der thus obtained is sodium
phenate. It is pinkish Y/hite in color, somev/hat
hygroscopic and very soluble in vvater, acetone
'.Vhen dry the sodium phenate is placed
in the autoclave and the lid is put on. The
autoclave used was made of copper, about 14"
tall and about 6" in diameter and about S/16"
thick. The lid was furnished with a lead gasket
and it formed a tight joint with the body of the
autoclave. The cover had a safety valve, a
passage for gas and a well for a thermometer.
The lid was fastened by means of a heavy bracliet.
Having placed the sodium phenate into
the autoclave and the lid put in place, it is
now tightly clamped in its seat. The gas inlet
in autoclave cover is connected by means of heavy
rubber tubing to an iron pipe containing calcium
chloride. This pipe is about £' long and 1" in
diameter; it is filled v;ith granular calcium c'nlor-
ide protected at both ends with glass v.ool and
wire gauze. The other end of this pipe is con-
nected to a carbon dioxide tank cy means of extra
heavy rubber tubing.
The autoclave is now suspended in such
a manner, that the bottom is immersed to a depth
of atout 3" in running cold water. The carbon
dioxide gas is turned on, the pressure in the auto-
clave is not allowed to exceed 10 lbs. This is
kept up for about an hour when the pressure is in-
creased to 75 lbs. and at the same time the cool-
ing is discontinued. V.lien no more carbon dioxide
is being absorbed, the pressure is brought up to
75 lbs. again and allowed to stand for about one
The cooling during the first stages
of the carhon dioxide ahsorhtion is quite a
desirable feature, because the temperature tends
to rise considerably and if the mass is not
cooled, phenol is split off, the mass chares and
fuses together making further absorbtion diffi-
A paraffin bath is nov; brought under
the autoclave so that the bottom vdll be immersed
in paraffin to a depth of about 5". The temper-
ature 01 the bath is gradually raised to 120° G
and for four hours the temperature is carefully
kept at 120°-140°C. The temperature of paraffin
bath must ue taken and not the temperature in
the well in the autoclave cover. The latter
temperature is about 50° below the temperature
of the paraffin bath.
At the end of the four hours the auto-
clave is allowed to cool off. V.'hen cool the auto-
clave is opened, the mass is transferred to a dish
and water added. The water is brought to a boil
and a few o.c. of con. hydrochloric acid added.
This throws out the tarry matter and creosotic
acids. This is separated in a separatory funnel.
The solution is now cooled and more hydrochloric
acid added. This throws out the impure sali-
The impure acid is collected by fil-
tration and is dried. Yield 44 gr. or 16;^ of
With some modifications this is the
Sohmitt method of preparation of salicylic acid.
EZPERILffiKTAI RUKS. (1st Run)
lEO gr. of sodium hydroxide were ais-
solved in an equal amount of water and mixed into
260 gm. of phenol. This was evaporated at 140°C
and 14" vacuum. 350 grams of sodium phenate ob-
tained. This was dark hrovai in color and very
hygroscopic. The phenate was powdered up, placed
in under a pressure of 10 Ihs., which was increas-
ed to 50 Ihs. in the course of half an hour. The
autoclave "became very warm during the passage of
carbon dioxide. This pressure was kept up for
two hours, then it was removed and the contents
of the autoclave examined. The mass was dark
"brown in color and of a thick pasty consistency;
it smelt strongly of phenol. The cover ".vat re-
placed and 50 lbs, of pressure applied from the
oar'Lon dioxide tank. The autoclave was placed
in a paraffin bath and heated for two hours at
130°-145°C. During this heating the pressure
inside the autoclave went up to 60 lbs.
At the end of the two hours the auto-
clave was allov;ed to cool off, and the contents
were examined. The mass v.as of a dark brov.n
color, moist and covered on top with fine cry-
stals of phenol. This was transferred to an
evaporating dish and dissolved in hot water. A
little hydrochloric acid threw dov.Ti the tarry
matter which was separated out. The remaining
part was tested with ferric chloride after the
excess of hydrochloric acid was neutralized with
calcium cartonate. The test did not show the
presence of salicylate.
EZPERIIJIEKTAI RUNS. (End Run)
The same amounts of phenol and sodium
hydroxide used as in the previous run. Evapor-
ated at 100°C and 18" vacuum.
The sodium phenate obtained was light
brovm in color and hygroscopic. It was poudered ,
placed in the autoclave and carton dioxide gas
passed in at a pressure of 10 lbs. and within
half an hour this was gradually increaeed to 60
lbs. The autoclave became very warm. The press-
ure was kept up for two hours, then removed and
the contents examined. The mass was brown in
color, moist and s;nelt of phenol. The cover was
now replaced and 60 lbs. of pressure applied from
the carbon dioxide tank. The autoclave was heat-
ed for three hours at 150°-145°C. The pressure
in the autoclave increased during heating to 70
At the end of the three hours the auto-
clave was allowed to cool off and the mass examined,
It was brown in color, somewhat moist and covered
with crystals of phenol.
This was treated as in the first run,
and the ferric chloride gave a very strong test.
However, there v.as not enough salicylate present
to allow of its isolation in a oure state.
ESPSRIMEIITAL RUUS. (Srd Run)
The same amounts of phenol tmd sodium
hydroxide used. The mixture was evaporated at
60°C and 22" vacuum. The sodium phenate obtain-
ed v.as pinkish v.hite in color and slightly hy-
It v.as powdered and placed in the auto-
clave. Carbon dioxide gas was passed in at a
pressure of 5 Ihs. and the autoclave v,as cooled
by means of running cold water, as descriced in
Run 4. In the course of an hour the pressure
was gradually increased to 70 lbs. and kept up
for another hour. The pressure was now removed
and the mass in the autoclave examined. It v.'as
light in color, dry, porous and it had a faint
odor of phenol.
After the cover was replaced, 70 lbs.
of pressure was applied from the caruon dioxide
tank ana the autoclave heated at 120-1400G for
After the autoclave had cooled off the
mass was transferred to an evaporating dish. It
was brownish gray in color, dry and had a faint
odor of phenol. Hot v.-ater was added and after
the tarry matter was separated out the impure
salicylic acid was thrown out by another addit-
ion of hydrochloric acid. [This was collected
on the filter and dried. Yield 14 gr. or 4^.
PURIi'ICATIOlI Oi' THE lUPUHE ACID.
The impure acid is dissolved in "boil-
ing v.-ater and then neutralii:ed v/ith calcium
oartonate and allowed to cool. Calcium sali-
cylate separates oat in hard glistening crystals.
A fairly pure acid yields almost pure white cry-
stals, hut an impure acid gives brov.nish cry-
stals. A second crystallization is ootained from
the mother liquor.
The calcium salt is again crystallized
from water, until a pure white salt is ohtaiii-
ed. It is now decomposed with hydrochloric acid
and the pure sclicylic acid is washed with a
little cold v.ater and finally crystallized out
from dilute aloohol. This gives a very pure
salicylic acid in the form of large prismatic
After this purification only 29 gr.
of pure acid was octained. or 6.3;: of the theo-
The chief impurities found in impure
acid are: phenol, creosotic acid due to impure
phenol, para-hydroxy-benzoic acid and a-hydroxy-
Iso-phthalic acid due to the presence of caustic
BOda and to a too high or too low temperature
in the manufacture.
The presence of a small amount of Jm-
puritiee causes the acid to crystallize from
dilute alcohol in the form of a mass of inter-
laced crystals instead of well defined large
It is quite clear that with proper
conditions present, the yield depends on the
pressure. However, the highest pressure ob-
tainahle with the equipment on hand v.as 75 lbs.
per sq. in. , therefore no further runs were
TEE CH3LII£'i?Ry OF THE SCffi.IITT LETHOD.
The chemistry of preparation of sali-
cylic acid by the method proposed by Schinitt
was explained by S. Tijmstra jun. (Ber.1905,
Sodium phenate is prepared as in the
C H OH * llaOH = C H OKa * H
6 5 6 5 2
When carbon dioxide is passed into
the sodium phenate and heated to 120°-130°C
under pressure the resulting product is ortho-
BOdoxybenzoic acid (sodium phenoxide-ortho-
It is not identical with sodium sali-
cylate. It has a greater dissociation tension
than sodium salicylate. It slov?ly absorbs
ammonia at ordinary temperatures. It is not
transformed into sodium salicylate when evapor-
ated to dryness \\ith water. It changes complete-
ly to sodium salicylate when dissolved in ace-
tone. The ortho-sodoxyhenzoic acid, which is
thus formed, on heating undergoes an isomeric
change into sodium salicylate:
This shows that the C0„ enters direct-
ly into the nucleus.
Y/hen sodium salicylate is heated in a
closed tube for 2-12 hours at 248'^, it changes
more or less completely into ortho-sodoxyhenzoic
The proper v^orking co adit ions for
the process are outlined under "Our Method
However, for larger yields pressure
up to 125 lbs. per so. in, or even higher
should ce used.
To use an enameled autoclave with
a stirring device would he of decided advan-
tage, because it would yield a purer and more
uniform product and it would materially cut
down the time necessary for the completion of
The yield as well as the quality of
the product depends mainly on three requisites;
the sodium phenate must not ce charred, it
must be dry and well powdered; the carbon diox-
ide must bo dry; the temperature must be
Neues HandwOrterlDuoh der Cheraie - 1890.
Dictionnaire de Ghiinie - 1906.
Thorp, Dictionary of Applied Chemistry, 7.4, - 1913.
Die SyuthetiBchen Darstellimgsmethoden der
Zohlenstoff-Verbindungen, Dr. Zarl Elbs - 1689.
r/atts, Dictionary of Chemistry, V.5, - 1692.
J. Chern Soc. 114. 11, 137-8.
Ber. S. [Dijmstra, jun. , 1905, 36, 1375-65.